|90497 - Meeting the demand for sustainable, healthier and personalised food products in the 21st century: A formulation science and mathematical approach.|
Foods are composite systems characterised by hierarchical levels of structural organisations ranging from the molecular, to thenano- up to the macroscopic scale. Foods include both natural and formulated multiphase biomaterials with different compositions and existing in a metastable form.As evidences of role played by food origin, composition and structure on human health continue to be provided, the need to design and develop affordable, healthier, and sustainable products continues to grow. The possibility to develop alternatives to available foods without reducing the consumer’s organoleptic experience requires a deep understanding of the relationship between the composition and processing of the food and its nutritional, sensorial, and physicochemical properties.Within this context, the aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive overview of some of the key aspects and challenges currently being faced by the food industry. In order to understand their behaviour at various characteristic length scales.
The course will cover six modules, the details of each one are listed below.
1. Food microstructure and its characterisation at various length scales.
The aim of the modern food industry is to systematically control, predict, and design of food material properties.In this module the key aspects related to understanding and characterise food structure upon formation and degradation will be covered. This module will include:
o Food structure; the food physicist, chemist, biologist, or engineer perspective
o Food type: Natural vs Processed products
o Structure formation on product manufacture
o Structure degradation on digestion: modelling biological transformations
- Food Structures, Digestion and Health (Book Edited by:Mike Boland, Matt Golding and Harjinder Singh)
- Physical Chemistry of Foods (book by Pieter Walstra)
- A Review on the Relationship Between Food Structure, Processing, and Bioavailability (Ilka Sensoy, JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition Volume 54 - 7, 2014)
- Designing Food Structures for Nutrition and Health Benefits. J. Norton et al.,2014, Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 5:177-195.
2. Fat and fat substitutes:
Fats represent a key ingredient to achieve the desired functional properties and performance of foods. They contribute to the structure development in a wide range of products (pastries, chocolate, ice-cream, fried products) as well as to the desired mouth feel, which drives consumers appreciation and choice. Nevertheless, fats are high-energy-densefoods and the health risks associated with theirconsumption (primarily trans¬- fat) requires to find rapidly suitable alternatives.This module will cover:
o Fat structure and hierarchical organisation
o Crystallisation and kinetics of phase transitions
o Oleogels and oil gelation technology: current state and perspectives
o Fat substitutes and biopolymer based fluid (sheared) gels as fat mimetic and replacers
o Fat rheological properties: from mathematical modelling to sensorial in mouth behaviour
o Structure and Properties of Fat Crystal Networks(Book by Alejandro G. Marangoni, Leendert H. Wesdorp, 2nd Edition)
o Crystallisation Processes in Fats and Lipid Systems (Book Edited by N. Garti and K. Sato)
o Edible Oleogels: Structure and Health Implications (Book Edited byA. G. Marangoni andN.Garti)
o Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of fat crystallization. Himawanet al., 2006.Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 122, Issues 1–3, 3 – 33.
o Advances in Lipids Crystallization Technology. M. Domingueset al., 2015. Advances in Lipids Crystallization Technology, Advanced Topics in Crystallization, Yitzhak Mastai, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/59767. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/advanced-topics-in-crystallization/advances-in-lipids-crystallization-technology
3. Emulsions manufacture, stability and emulsifications technologies
Many food products exist as emulsions, i.e. a dispersion of at least one liquid in another, the two liquid being immiscible. Food emulsions can be liquid, semi-sloid or solid depending on the phase ratio and on the physical properties of each phase. Furthermore flavouring agents and micronutrients contribute to their structure, stability and consumer’s liking. Emulsions can also be used as delivery systems to protect nutraceutical compounds to deliver targeted release along the gastro-intestinal tract. This module will cover:
o Food emulsion types and complexity:
Macro-, nano-, microemulsions
Multiple andmulti-layered emulsions
High internal phase emulsions
o Characterisation of emulsion structural properties:
Particle size and size analysis
Optical properties and mathematical modelling
Rheology, nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal analysis
o Emulsifiers: non-ionic and ionic surfactants, amphiphilic biopolymer emulsifiers, and Pickering particles
Engineering and empirical models to predict emulsion formation
High vs low energy input approaches
Physical principles for emulsion manufacture
Factor affecting emulsions stability
o Kinetic vs thermodynamic stability
o Mechanisms of emulsions (in)stability
- Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques, Second and Third Edition (Book by:David Julian McClements)
- Physical Chemistry of Foods (Book by Pieter Walstra)
- Food Emulsions fourth edition (Bookedited by StigFriberg, Kare Larsson, Johan Sjoblom)
- Food Mixing: Principles and Applications(edited by P. J. Cullen).
- Bridging benchtop research and industrial processed foods:Structuring of model food emulsions. A. Pawlik and I. Norton, 2014. Food StructureVolume 1, Issue 1, 24-38.
4. Pulses, underutilised crops and plant proteins
Pulses are the edible dry seeds of plants of the legume family;the FAO recognizes eleven types of pulses.Legumes are a good source of carbohydrate, proteins, B‐complex vitamins, minerals and many health‐promoting phytochemicals.Although the consumption of pulses is well-recognised to have positive effects on human health and to be a key player to ensure global food security, the incorporation of pulses into food products is relatively recent, with soy being the main legume investigated to this purpose. The upgrade of legumes and underutilised crops into mainstream food products is a growing trend which may occur once we learn how to process them. This module will cover:
o Legumes seeds characteristics
o Underutilised and native crops
o Plant proteins: chemical profile and structural characteristics
o Process control for the manufacture of pulse flour
o Formulation design using pulse flours: raising opportunities
o Modelling seeds transformation during thermal and hydration processes
o Legumes: Nutritional Quality, Processing and Potential Health Benefits. Book edited by Maria Ángeles Martín-Cabrejas.
o Peas and other legume proteins. S. D. Arntfield and H. D. Maskus. Handbook of Food Proteins.Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition2011, 233-266.
o Pulse proteins: Processing, characterization, functional properties and applications in food and feed.Boyeet al., 2010. Food Research International. Volume 43, Issue 2, 414-431
o The use of Peleg's equation to model water absorption in some cereal grains during soaking. P. Sopadeet al., 1992. Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 15, Issue 4, 269-283
5. Current challenges and future perspectives in implementing natural structuring agents: from emulsions and emulsifiers to food gels
Global food security is one of the major world challenges to be faced in the next thirty years. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for the manufacture of natural, nutritious and sustainable food products. The successful achievements of these ambitious targets can only occur if the food industry develops successful strategies to process and implement natural mildly refined natural materials.
o Learning from nature: natural plant organelle for structure design
o Aquatic plants: challenges and opportunities
o Natural structuring with cell wall materials
o Plant material functionalisation strategies
o Hydrocolloids based gels
o Progress in natural emulsifiers for utilization in foodemulsions. B.Ozturk and D. J.McClements, 2016. Current Opinion in Food Science, Volume 7, 1–6.
o Current status on novel ways for stabilizing fooddispersions by oleosins, particles and microgels. Marilyn Rayner, 2015. Current Opinion in Food Science, Volume 3, 94–109
o Composition, properties and potential foodapplications of natural emulsions and creammaterials based on oil bodies. Nikiforidis et al., 2014. RSC Adv., 4, 25067
o Towards more natural emulsifiers. E. Dickinson,1993. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 10, 330-334
o Naturally occurring nanoparticles in food. M. A. Rogers, 2016. Current Opinion in Food Science,Volume 7, 14-19.
o Designing biopolymer fluid gels: A microstructural approach. I. F. Farréset al., 2014. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 42, Part 3, 362-372
6. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) in food: an emerging (domestic) trend for personalised food
The growing demand for personalised food has driven a significant innovation resulting in the development oftechnological approaches to customise structure, nutritional profile, texture, and flavour of food products. Within this rapidly evolving scenario, three-dimensional (3D)printing is an emerging technology receiving great attentionas a tool to manufacture personalised foods. 3D printing technology allows to create complex edible shapes and to tailor their nutritional profile and texture so to satisfy the needsposed by specific dietary regimes. Whilst this technology may completely change the way foods are produced both at an industrial and at domestic level, the small number of materials suitable for the 3D printingand the lack of extensive rigorous scientific data poses limitations to its upgrade. This module will cover:
o Main categories of 3D printing techniques for the design of food materials
o Food personalisation: main trends and opportunities
o Engineering and mathematical challenges in food 3D printing
o Food powders: key characteristics and applications
o Ink-jet printing to build multilayer composite structures
o High viscosity jetting of gels.
o Fundamentals of 3D printing and application. Book edited byF.Godoi, B. Bhandari, S. Prakash, M. Zhang
o An Overview of 3D Printing Technologies for Soft Materials and Potential Opportunities for Lipid-based Drug DeliverySystems. K.Vithaniet al., 2019. Pharm Res, 36: 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2531-1
o Fluid Gels: a New Feedstock for High Viscosity Jetting. Holland et al., 2018. Food Biophysics, 13:175–185.
o Application of 3D printing for customized food. A case on the development of a fruit-based snack for children. Derossi et al., 2018. Journal of Food EngineeringVolume 220, Pages 65-75.
Vincenzo di Bari
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