Disciplina Discipline ARQ5025
Arqueologia da Floresta Tropical

Archaeology of the tropical rainforest

Área de Concentração: 71131

Concentration area: 71131

Criação: 10/07/2019

Creation: 10/07/2019

Ativação: 10/07/2019

Activation: 10/07/2019

Nr. de Créditos: 4

Credits: 4

Carga Horária:

Workload:

Teórica

(por semana)

Theory

(weekly)

Prática

(por semana)

Practice

(weekly)

Estudos

(por semana)

Study

(weekly)

Duração Duration Total Total
4 1 1 10 semanas 10 weeks 60 horas 60 hours

Docente Responsável:

Professor:

Eduardo Goes Neves

Objetivos:

A Amazônia é vista como uma das últimas florestas pristinas sobreviventes no mundo. No entanto, pesquisas arqueológicas recentes têm mostrado que partes dele foram densamente ocupadas no passado. Se isso for verdade, essas descobertas significam que muitas dessas paisagens naturais aparentemente virgens evoluíram a partir dos efeitos acumulados das ocupações humanas ao longo do tempo. Como podemos reconciliar essas novas evidências com as necessidades de proteger os ambientes amazônicos e os meios de vida de suas populações tradicionais? Este curso tem como objetivo abordar essa questão de duas maneiras - apresentando uma introdução à arqueologia da bacia amazônica e considerando a situação contemporânea dessa floresta tropical e de seus povos. A premissa subjacente é que a arqueologia fornece uma fonte privilegiada para a compreensão da história de longo prazo dos povos nativos da Amazônia. As aulas seguirão uma tradição intelectual que começou na década de 1950, que visa entender a história antiga da Amazônia em relação às condições ecológicas da região. Uma avaliação crítica do determinismo ambiental será apresentada, assim como uma perspectiva alternativa que se baseia na hipótese de que os biomas amazônicos foram transformados pelas sociedades indígenas no passado.

Justificativa:

Esta proposta apresenta uma perspectiva atualizada de um curso sobre arqueologia amazônica que venho ministrando há anos no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arqueologia do MAE. Trata-se, no caso desta versão, de um curso que ministrei no outono de 2017 no Departamento de Antropologia da Universidade Harvard e que agora pretendo ministrar aos alunos do MAE. O MAE é atualmente o maior centro de formação em arqueologia amazônica em nível de pós-graduação no Brasil e é portanto importante que seus alunos tenham pelo menos um curso formal sobre o tema. O curso pode ser também interessante àqueles alunos que trabalham com outros temas da arqueologia sul-americana que não apenas os relativos à Amazônia.

Conteúdo:

I. DIVERSIDADE SOCIOCULTURAL E BIOLÓGICA NA AMAZÔNIA CONTEMPORÂNEA: UM LEGADO DO PASSADO? Heckenberger, M. J., Kuikuro A., Tabata Kuikuro, U., Russell, J. C., M. Schmidt, Fausto, C., Franchetto, B., Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest or Cultural Parkland?, Science: 301: 1710-1714, 2003. ter Steege Hans et al. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian Tree Flora, Science 342: DOI: 10.1126/science.1243092, 2013. ter Steege Hans et al. Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species, Science Advances Vol. 1, no. 10, e1500936 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500936, 2015. Moore, D. Endangered Languages of Lowland Tropical South America, In Language Diversity Endangered, edited by M Brenzinger, ed. Berlin • New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 29-58, 2007. Neves, E. G. Archaeological cultures and past identities in precolonial central Amazon, In: Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistort, Boulder: University of Colorado Press, A. Hornborg, J. Hill eds. pp 31-56, 2011 II. O FLORESTAMENTO DA AMAZÔNIA Balée, W. An Estimate of Anthropogenesis, In: Cultural Forests of the Amazon: A Historical Ecology of People and Their Landscapes, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, pp. 32-52, 2013. Chambouleyron, Rafael et al. Formidable contagion’: epidemics, work and recruitment in Colonial Amazonia (1660-1750). História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, v.18, n.4, pp. 1-18 2011. Piperno, D., McMichael, C,. Bush, M. Amazonia and the Anthropocene: What was the spatial extent and intensity of human landscape modification in the Amazon Basin at the end of prehistory? The Holocene Vol. 25(10) 1588–1597, 2015 Dean, W. Chapter 4. Estrangement: Depopulation and the Regrown Forest, In: With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 66-90, 1997. Denevan, W., After 1492: Nature Rebounds, Geographical Review, Volume 106, Issue 3 Pp. 381–398, 2016. Nevle, R. Bird, D. K. Ruddiman, W. A., Dull, R. A. Neotropical human–landscape interactions, fire, and atmospheric CO2 during European conquest, The Holocene 21(5) 853–864, 2011. III. AS POLÍTICAS DA PRISTINIDADE Safier, N. The Tenacious Travels of the Torrid Zone and the Global Dimensions of Geographical Knowledge in the Eighteenth Century, Journal of Early Modern History 18 141-172, 2014. Hecht, Susanna, “In the Times of Scrambles in the Land of the Amazons”, in The Scramble for the Amazon and the "Lost Paradise" of Euclides da Cunha, 2013 Hecht, Susanna “Imperialisms, Revolutions, and Resolutions in the Caribbean Amazon”, in The Scramble for the Amazon and the "Lost Paradise" of Euclides da Cunha, 2013 Hecht, Susanna “American Amazon”? Colonizations and Speculations”, in The Scramble for the Amazon and the "Lost Paradise" of Euclides da Cunha, 2013. Hecht, Susanna “Wall Street, Rebels, and Rio Branco”, in The Scramble for the Amazon and the "Lost Paradise" of Euclides da Cunha, 2013. Hecht, Susanna “Peru, Purús, Brazil” in The Scramble for the Amazon and the "Lost Paradise" of Euclides da Cunha, 2013. IV. GUERRAS DE ÁRVORES McMichael, C. H, Piperno, D. R., Bush, M. B. Silman, M. R. Zimmerman, A. F, Raczka, M. F. Lobato, L. C. Sparse Pre-Columbian Human Habitation in Western Amazonia, Science 336: 1429-1431, 2012. Stahl, P. Interpreting interfluvial landscape transformations in the pre-Columbian Amazon, The Holocene, 25(10) 1598–1603, 2015. Bush, M. B., McMichael, C., Piperno, D. Silman, M., Barlow, J., Peres, C., Power, M. Palace, M., Anthropogenic influence on Amazonian forests in pre-history: An ecological perspective, Journal of Biogeography 42, 2277–2288, 2015. Clement, C., Denevan W., Heckenberger, M.,Junqueira, A. B., Neves, E. G., Woods, W., Teixeira, W. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest, Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20150813. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.0813, 2015. V. A ILUSÃO DE UM PARAÍSO?: Lathrap, D. W. 1968. "Aboriginal Occupations and Changes in the River Channel on the Central Ucayali, Peru." American Antiquity 33: 62-79, 1968. Meggers, B. Recent Developments, In: Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise, second edition, Chicago: Aldine, pp. 169-198, 1997. Erickson, C. Amazonia: The Historical Ecology of a Domesticated Landscape, In: Handbook of South American Archaeology, H. Silvermann, W. Isbell, eds. New York: Springer, 2008, pp. 157-183. Descola, P. Configurations of Continuity, In: Beyond Nature and Culture, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp 3-31, 2013. Fausto, C. Images of Abundance and Scarcity, in Warfare and Shamanism in Amazonia, pp. 53-89. Rostain, S. A Natural Garden or a Domesticated Forest? In: Islands in the Rainforest: Landscape Management in Pre-Columbian Amazoni, pp. VI. EM BUSCA DA EVIDÊNCIA: Carson, J, Whitney, B., Mayle, F., Iriarte, J., Prümers, H. , Soto, J. D. , Watling J. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia, PNAS, vol. 111, 29: 10497–10502, 2014. Heckenberger, M., Neves, E. Amazonian Archaeology, Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 38: 251-266, 2009. Iriarte, J., Power M., Rostain, S., Mayle F., Jones H., Watling, J. Whitney, B. , McKeye, D. Fire-free land use in pre-1492 Amazonian savanas, PNAS, vol. 109, 17:6473–6478, 2012. Roosevelt, A. The Amazon and the Anthropocene: 13,000 years of human influence in a tropical rainforest, Anthropocene, Vol. 4, pp. 69-87, 2013. Schmidt, M. et al. Dark earths and the human built landscape in Amazonia: awidespread pattern of anthrosol formation, Journal of Archaeological Science 42: 152-165, 2014. Schaan, D. Chapter 4: Ponds, Lakes, and Feasts: The Cultural Geography of Anthropogenic Soils, In: Sacred geographies of ancient Amazonia. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Left Coast Press, 2011. VII. DE VOLTA AO PLEISTOCENO: Headland, T., Bailey, R. Introduction: Have hunter-gatherers ever lived in tropical rain forest independently of agriculture? Human Ecololgy, 19: 115. doi:10.1007/BF00888742, 1991. Lathrap, D. W. The "hunting" economies of the tropical forest zone of South America: An attempt at historical perspective. In: Man the Hunter. R. Lee, Devore, I. eds. Aldine: Chicago, pp. 23-29, 1968. Maslin, M., Ettwein, V. Boot, C., Bendle, J. Pancost, R. Amazon Fan biomarker evidence against the Pleistocene rainforest refuge hypothesis? Journal of Quaternart Science 27(5) 451–460, 2012. Withney, B., Mayle, F., Punyasena S., Fitzpatrick, K., Burn, M., Guillen, R., Chavez, E., Mann, D., Penninton, R. T., Metcalfe, S. A 45 kyr palaeoclimate record from the lowland interior of tropical South America, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 307 (1-4) 177–192, 2011. VIII. OS ÚLTIMOS A SOBREVIVER OU OS PRIMEIROS A SE ADAPTAR? Dillehay, T. Profiles in Pleistocene History, In: Handbook of South American Archaeology, H. Silvermann, W. Isbell, eds. New York: Springer, pp 29-43, 2008. Politis, Gustavo G. Moving to Produce: Nukak Mobility and Settlement Patterns in Amazonia. World Archaeology 27(3): 492-511, 1996. Roosevelt, Anna et al. The Migrations and Adaptations of the First Americans: Clovis and Pré-Clovis Viewed from South America, In: The First Americans, The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, N. Jablonski, ed. San Francisco: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences Number 27, pp. 159-235, 2002. IX. HOUVE UM NEOLÍTICO OU UM FORMATIVO NOS NEOTRÓPICOS? Lévi-Strauss, C. The Concept of Archaism in Anthropology, In: Structural anthropology, New York: Basic Books, pp. 117-130, 1963. Oyuela-Caycedo, A. Rock versus clay: The evolution of pottery technology in the case of San Jacinto 1, Colombia, In: The emergence of pottery. Technology and innovation in ancient societies, Barnett, W., Hoopes, J., eds. pp 133-144, 1995. Piperno, D. R. The origins of plant cultivation and domestication in the New World tropics: patterns, process, and new developments. Current Anthropology 52 (4): S453–S470, 2011. Roosevelt, Anna Early Pottery in the Amazon. Twenty Years of Scholarly Obscurity. In: The Emergence of Pottery. Technology and Innova¬tion in Ancient Societies, Barnett, W., Hoopes, J., eds. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 115-131, 1995. Valdez, F. Inter-Zonal Relationships in Ecuador, In: The Handbook of South American Archaeology, Silverman H., Isbell, W. eds., , New York: Springer, pp. 865-888, 2008. Williams, D. Early pottery in the Amazon: a correction, American Antiquity, 62(2): 342-352, 1997. X. AGRICULTURA SEM DOMESTICAÇÃO E TERRAS PRETAS: Arroyo-Kalin, M. Slash-burn-and-churn: Landscape history and crop cultivation in pre-Columbian Amazonia, Quaternary International, 249, (6): 4–18. Clement, C., Cristo-Araujo, M., D’Eeckenbrugge, G., Pereira, A., Picanço-Rodrigues, D., Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops, Diversity 2010, 2(1), 72-106; doi:10.3390/d2010072, 2010. Carneiro, R. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Among the Kuikuru and Its Implications for Cultural Development in the Amazon Basin. In Native South Americans, Lyon, P., ed. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. pp. 122-132, 1974. (Originally published in 1961) Dickau, R., Bruno, M., Iriarte, J., Prümers, H., Betancourt, C., J., Holst, I., Mayle, F. Diversity of cultivars and other plant resources used at habitation sites in theLlanos de Mojos, Beni, Bolivia: evidence from macrobotanical remains, starchgrains, and phytoliths, Journal of Archaeological Science 39 (2012) 357-370, 2012. Kohn, E. Trans-Species Pidgins, In: How Forests Think: Toward na Anthropology Beyond the Human, Berkeley: University of Calfornia Press, pp. 131-150, 2013. Neves, E. Was Agriculture a Key Productive Activity in Pre-Colonial Amazonia? The Stable Productive Basis for Social Equality in the Central Amazon, In: Human-Environment Interactions: Current and Future Directions, Brondízio, E., Moran, E, eds. Pp. 371-388, 2011. XI. ÁRVORES DE NOVO: Arroyo-Kalin, M. Landscaping, Landscape Legacies, and Landesque Capital in Pre-Columbian Amazonia, In: Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology, Isendahl, C., Stump D., eds., Oxford University Press, DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199672691.013.16, 2015 Balée, W. People of the Fallow Forest, In: Cultural Forests of the Amazon: A Historical Ecology of People and Their Landscapes. The University of Alabama Press, pp. 53-69, 2013. Clement, C. Fruit trees and the transition to food production in Amazonia. In: Balée, W., Erickson, C. eds, Time and Complexity in the Neotropical Lowlands: Studies in Historical Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 165-185, 2006. Rival, L. Harvesting the Forest's Natural Abundance, In: Trekking Through History The Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 68-93, 2002. Shepard, G.H. & Ramirez, H., “Made in Brazil”: Human Dispersal of the Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) in Ancient Amazonia, Economic Botany 65: 44. doi:10.1007/s12231-011-9151-6, 2011. XII. A AMAZÔNIA EM 1491 E O FUTURO Neves, E., & Petersen, J. The Political Economy of Late Pre-Colonial Social Formations in the Central Amazon, In: Neotropical Historical Ecology, Balée, B., & Erickson, C. eds. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. Heckenberger, M. Social Dynamics Before Europe, In: The Ecology of Power: Culture, Place and Personhood in the Southern Amazon, AD 1000-2000, pp. 113-142, 2005. Schaan D. Chapter 5: Marks on the Earth: Territoriality and Memory, In: Sacred geographies of ancient Amazonia. Walnut Creek, Calif. : Left Coast Press, 2011. Rostain, S. Terra Cognita: 10,000 years of Human Impact, In: Islands in the Rainforest: Landscape Management in Pre-Columbian Amazonia, Left Coast Press, pp. 91-134, 2013 Walker, J. Llanos de Mojos, In: The Handbook of South American Archaeology, Silverman H., Isbell, W. eds., New York: Springer, pp. pp. 927-939, 2008 Kopenawa, D. “Metal Smoke”, in: Kopenawa, D. and Albert, B., The Falling Sky: Words of a Yanomami Shaman, Harvard University Press, pp 155-298, 2013. Lins J, Lima HP, Baccaro FB, Kinupp VF, Shepard GH, Jr, Clement CR Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127067. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.012706, 2015 Emperaire, L. Eloy, L. Amerindian Agriculture in an Urbanising Amazonia (Rio Negro, Brazil), Bulletin of Latin American Research, 34 (1): 70–84, 2015. Hecht, S. Morrison, K., Padoch C. From Fragmentation to Forest Resurgence: Paradigms, Representations, and Practices, In: The Social Lives of Forests: Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence, Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 1-8, 2014. Viveiros de Castro, E. The relative native, HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 3 (3): 473–502, 2013 Walker RS, DC Kesler, KR Hill. Are isolated indigenous populations headed toward extinction? PLoS ONE 11: e0150987, 2016.

Forma de Avaliação:

Trabalho final escrito.

Observação:

Bibliografia:

Indicada na ementa.