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Júpiter - Sistema de Graduação

Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
 
Economia
 
Disciplina: EAE0328 - Economia Comportamental
Behavioral Economics

Créditos Aula: 4
Créditos Trabalho: 0
Carga Horária Total: 60 h ( Estágio: 60 h )
Tipo: Semestral
Ativação: 15/07/2019 Desativação:

Objetivos
Oferecer uma visão geral da área de economia comportamental: sua “filosofia” de modelagem, as áreas em que tem sido aplicada e as questões que traz para o desenho e avaliação de políticas públicas. Para cada tópico, focaremos nos principais modelos comportamentais e na evidência que costuma motivar esses modelos.
 
 
 
Docente(s) Responsável(eis)
7484195 - Sérgio Almeida de Sousa
 
Programa Resumido
A economia comportamental nada mais é do que uma tentativa de aumentar o realismo da parte psi- cológica dos modelos econômicos. Isso é feito, em geral, da seguinte forma. Primeiro,, identifica-se “anomalias": resultados empíricos documentando traços psicológicos/comportamentais em desa- cordo com hipóteses psicológicas (implícitas ou não) de algum modelo padrão. Segundo, constrói-se um modelo com novas suposições. Isso envolve, em geral, a introdução de algum tipo de “imperfei- ção”: de racionalidade, de auto-interesse ou de auto-controle. Terceiro, explora-se em que medida os resultados/previsões do novo modelo diferem do modelo padrão. A expectativa é que o maior realismo psicológico melhore o poder explicativo e preditivo dos modelos. À parte a preocupação com os fundamentos psicológicos, a Economia Comportamental é hoje ab- solutamente mainstream do ponto de vista metodológico: se fia no individualismo metodológico, na construção de modelos que articulem as suposições, na derivação matemática do que essas supo- sições conjuntamente implicam e no teste empírico rigoroso tanto de suposições quanto de resultados. Embora não haja nada que restrinja qualquer tópico em economia à uma leitura "comportamental", há tópicos que desenvolveram uma associação mais forte com a agenda de pesquisa da área. A lista de tópicos desse curso procura cobrir boa parte dessa agenda.
 
 
 
Programa
1. Por que economia comportamental? Introdução 2. A psicologia da tomada de decisão: heurísticas e vieses 3. Preferências de risco 4. Preferências intertemporais 5. Preferências sociais 6. Finanças comportamentais 7. Teoria dos jogos comportamental 8. Incentivos e motivação 9. Auto-controle 10. Neuroeconomia 11. Economia do trabalho comportamental 5. Leitura Tópico 1: Por que economia comportamental? Introdução O que é e por que economia comportamental? Uma visão geral dos temas e ferramentas da área. Requerida: .,. Colin F. Camerer and George Loewenstein. Behavioral economics: Past, present, and future. In Colin F. Camerer, George Loewenstein, and Matthew Rabin, editors, Advances in Behavioral Economics. Princeton University Press, 2004. .,. Richard H. Thaler. Behavioral Economics: Past, Present, and Future. American Economic Review, 106(7):1577–1600, July 2016. Recomendada: .,. Matthew Rabin. Psychology and Economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 36(1):11–46, March 1998. .,. Colin F. Camerer. Behavioral Economics. In: World Congress of the Econometric Society, 18-24 August 2005, London Unpublished, Econometric SocietyCaltech, August 2005. .,. Ariel Rubinstein. Discussion of ’Behavioral Economics’. Levine’s Bibliography 784828000000000539, UCLA Department of Economics, November 2005. .,. Stefano DellaVigna. Psychology and Economics: Evidence from the Field. Journal of Economic Literature, 47(2):315–372, June 2009. Tópico 2: Heurísticas e vieses Atalhos decisórios de julgamento e decisão e os vieses e erros normativos implícitos a esses atalhos. Requerida: .,. A. Tversky and D. Kahneman. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185:1124–31, 1974. .,. Klaus Fiedler and Momme von Sydow. Heuristics and biases: Beyond tversky and kahneman’s (1974) judgment under uncertainty. In M.W. Eysenck and D. Groome, editors, Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. SAGE Publications, 2015. Recomendada: .,. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice, pages 25–41. Springer US, Boston, MA, 1985. .,. Daniel Kahneman. Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics. Ame- rican Economic Review, 93(5):1449–1475, December 2003. .,. Steve Dale. Heuristics and biases: The science of decision-making. Business Information Review, 32(2):93–99, 2015. Tópico 3: Preferências de risco Um modelo “procedural” de decisão em condições de risco e suas aplicações. Requerida: .,. A. Tversky and D. Kahneman. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185:1124–31, 1974. .,. Colin Camerer. Prospect theory in the wild: Evidence from the field. In Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, editors, Choices, Values, and Frames. Cambridge University Press, 2001. Recomendada: .,. Itzhak Gilboa and David Schmeidler. Case-based decision theory*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3):605–639, 1995. .,. Chris Starmer. Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk. Journal of Economic Literature, 38(2):332–382, June 2000. .,. Matthew Rabin and Richard H. Thaler. Anomalies: Risk Aversion. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(1):219–232, Winter 2001. .,. Nicholas C. Barberis. Thirty years of prospect theory in economics: A review and assessment. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(1):173–96, February 2013. Tópico 4: Preferências intertemporais A psicologia da valoração presente de custos e benefícios que ocorrem ao longo do tempo. Requerida: .,. David Laibson. Golden eggs and hyperbolic discounting. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2):443–478, 1997. .,. Shane Frederick, George Loewenstein, and Ted O’Donoghue. Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(2):351–401, June 2002. Recomendada: .,. George-Marios Angeletos. The Hyberbolic Consumption Model: Calibration, Simulation, and Empirical Evaluation. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(3):47–68, Summer 2001. .,. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde and Arijit Mukherji. Can We Really Observe Hyperbolic Dis- counting? Levine’s Working Paper Archive 391749000000000478, David K. Levine, February 2002. .,. Shane Frederick. Valuing future life and future lives: A framework for understanding discoun- ting. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27(5):667–680, 2006. Tópico 5: Preferências sociais Quando os agentes exibem preferências sobre o bem-estar/ganhos de outros. Requerida: .,. Ernst Fehr and Klaus M. Schmidt. A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(3):817–868, 1999. .,. Axel Ockenfels and Gary E. Bolton. ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition. American Economic Review, 90(1):166–193, March 2000. .,. Gary Charness and Matthew Rabin. Understanding social preferences with simple tests. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(3):817–869, 2002. Recomendada: .,. David K. Levine. Modeling Altruism and Spitefulness in Experiment. Review of Economic Dynamics, 1(3):593–622, July 1998. .,. Ernst Fehr and Simon Gächter. Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3):159–181, Summer 2000. .,. Ernst Fehr and Simon Gächter. Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments. The American Economic Review, 90(4):980–994, 2000. .,. Ernst Fehr and Urs Fischbacher. Why social preferences matter - the impact of non-selfish motives on competition, cooperation and incentives. The Economic Journal, 112(478):C1–C33, 2002. .,. Ken Binmore and Avner Shaked. Experimental economics: Where next? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 73(1):87–100, January 2010. [Uma crítica ao modelo Fehr-Schimdt] Tópico 6: Finanças comportamentais Psicologia comportamental e cognitiva usada para explicar “anomalias” do mercado financeiro. Requerida: .,. Andrei Shleifer. Inefficient Markets: An Introduction to Behavioral Finance. Oxford University Press, 2000 [Caps. 1 & 4]. .,. Nicholas Barberis and Richard Thaler. A survey of behavioral finance. In G.M. Constantinides, M. Harris, and R. M. Stulz, editors, Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 1 of Handbook of the Economics of Finance, chapter 18, pages 1053–1128. Elsevier, 2003. Recomendada: .,. Lawrence H. Summers. Does the stock market rationally reflect fundamental values? The Journal of Finance, 41(3):591–601, 1986. .,. David Hirshleifer. Investor psychology and asset pricing. Journal of Finance, 56(4):1533–1597, 2001. Tópico 7: Teoria dos jogos comportamental Análise de interações estratégicas com influências emocionais, cognição limitada e aprendizado. Requerida: .,. Matthew Rabin. Incorporating Behavioral Assumptions into Game Theory, pages 69–87. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 1994. .,. Colin F. Camerer. Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2003. [Cap. 1] .,. Simon Gachter. Behavioural Game Theory. In Derek J. Koehler Nigel Harvey, editor, Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, chapter 24, pages 485–503. Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Recomendada: .,. Chong J.K. Camerer C.F., Ho TH. Behavioural Game Theory: Thinking, Learning and Te- aching. In Huck S., editor, Advances in Understanding Strategic Behaviour, chapter 8, pages 120–180. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Tópico 8: Incentivos e motivação A relação entre incentivos (prêmios e punições) e motivação – e disso sobre performance. Requerida: .,. Ernst Fehr and Armin Falk. Psychological foundations of incentives. European Economic Review, 46(4):687 – 724, 2002. .,. Emir Kamenica. Behavioral economics and psychology of incentives. Annual Review of Eco- nomics, 4(1):427–452, 2012. Recomendada: .,. Bruno S. Frey and Reto Jegen. Motivation crowding theory. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(5):589–611, 2002. .,. Roland Bénabou and Jean Tirole. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Review of Economic Studies, 70(3):489–520, 2003. .,. Uri Gneezy, Stephan Meier, and Pedro Rey-Biel. When and why incentives (don’t) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(4):191–210, December 2011. Tópico 9: Auto-controle Habilidade dos indivíduos em alinhar escolhas correntes com objetivos de longo prazo. Requerida: .,. Richard H. Thaler and H. M. Shefrin. An economic theory of self-control. Journal of Political Economy, 89(2):392–406, 1981. .,. Matthew Rabin and Ted O’Donoghue. Doing It Now or Later. American Economic Review, 89(1):103–124, March 1999. Recomendada: .,. Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier. Contract design and self-control: Theory and evidence*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(2):353–402, 2004. .,. Drew Fudenberg and David K. Levine. A dual-self model of impulse control. American Economic Review, 96(5):1449–1476, December 2006. .,. Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier. Paying not to go to the gym. American Economic Review, 96(3):694–719, June 2006 Tópico 10: Neuroeconomia Como o cérebro humano gera decisões econômicas: microfundamentos neurológicos de crenças e preferências. Requerida: .,. Colin F. Camerer. Behavioral Economics. In: World Congress of the Econometric Society, 18-24 August 2005, London Unpublished, Econometric SocietyCaltech, August 2005. .,. Faruk Gul and Wolfgang Pesendorfer. The case for mindless economics. 12 2005. Recomendada: .,. Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher, and Michael Kosfeld. Neuroeconomic foundations of trust and social preferences: Initial evidence. American Economic Review, 95(2):346–351, 2005. .,. Colin F. Camerer. Goals, methods, and progress in neuroeconomics. Annual Review of Eco- nomics, 5(1):425–455, 2013. .,. Alec Smith, B. Douglas Bernheim, Colin F. Camerer, and Antonio Rangel. Neural activity reveals preferences without choices. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 6(2):1–36, May 2014. Tópico 11: Economia do trabalho comportamental Incorporando insights psicológicos na análise das relações de trabalho. Requerida: .,. Ernst Fehr, Lorenz Goette, and Christian Zehnder. A behavioral account of the labor market: The role of fairness concerns. Annual Review of Economics, 1(1):355–384, 2009. .,. Behavioral labor economics: Advances and future directions. Labour Economics, 30:71 – 85, 2014. Special Section articles on. Recomendada: .,. Colin Camerer, Linda Babcock, George Loewenstein, and Richard Thaler. Labor Supply of New York City Cabdrivers: One Day at a Time. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2):407–441, 1997. .,. Uri Gneezy and John A List. Putting behavioral economics to work: Testing for gift exchange in labor markets using field experiments. Econometrica, 74(5):1365–1384, 2006 .,. Martin Brown, Armin Falk, and Ernst Fehr. Competition and relational contracts: The role of unemployment as a disciplinary device. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(4):887–907, 2012.
 
 
 
Avaliação
     
Método
A avaliação dos estudantes será feito através de sinopses do material de leitura, listas de exercícios, testes e exames.
Critério
Prova Exercicio
Norma de Recuperação
Média aritmética simples entre a nota da Primeira Avaliação e a nota da Recuperação igual ou superior a 5 (cinco).
 
Bibliografia
     
Tópico 1: Por que economia comportamental? Introdução O que é e por que economia comportamental? Uma visão geral dos temas e ferramentas da área. Requerida: .,. Colin F. Camerer and George Loewenstein. Behavioral economics: Past, present, and future. In Colin F. Camerer, George Loewenstein, and Matthew Rabin, editors, Advances in Behavioral Economics. Princeton University Press, 2004. .,. Richard H. Thaler. Behavioral Economics: Past, Present, and Future. American Economic Review, 106(7):1577–1600, July 2016. Recomendada: .,. Matthew Rabin. Psychology and Economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 36(1):11–46, March 1998. .,. Colin F. Camerer. Behavioral Economics. In: World Congress of the Econometric Society, 18-24 August 2005, London Unpublished, Econometric SocietyCaltech, August 2005. .,. Ariel Rubinstein. Discussion of ’Behavioral Economics’. Levine’s Bibliography 784828000000000539, UCLA Department of Economics, November 2005. .,. Stefano DellaVigna. Psychology and Economics: Evidence from the Field. Journal of Economic Literature, 47(2):315–372, June 2009. Tópico 2: Heurísticas e vieses Atalhos decisórios de julgamento e decisão e os vieses e erros normativos implícitos a esses atalhos. Requerida: .,. A. Tversky and D. Kahneman. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185:1124–31, 1974. .,. Klaus Fiedler and Momme von Sydow. Heuristics and biases: Beyond tversky and kahneman’s (1974) judgment under uncertainty. In M.W. Eysenck and D. Groome, editors, Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. SAGE Publications, 2015. Recomendada: .,. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice, pages 25–41. Springer US, Boston, MA, 1985. .,. Daniel Kahneman. Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics. Ame- rican Economic Review, 93(5):1449–1475, December 2003. .,. Steve Dale. Heuristics and biases: The science of decision-making. Business Information Review, 32(2):93–99, 2015. Tópico 3: Preferências de risco Um modelo “procedural” de decisão em condições de risco e suas aplicações. Requerida: .,. A. Tversky and D. Kahneman. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185:1124–31, 1974. .,. Colin Camerer. Prospect theory in the wild: Evidence from the field. In Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, editors, Choices, Values, and Frames. Cambridge University Press, 2001. Recomendada: .,. Itzhak Gilboa and David Schmeidler. Case-based decision theory*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3):605–639, 1995. .,. Chris Starmer. Developments in Non-expected Utility Theory: The Hunt for a Descriptive Theory of Choice under Risk. Journal of Economic Literature, 38(2):332–382, June 2000. .,. Matthew Rabin and Richard H. Thaler. Anomalies: Risk Aversion. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(1):219–232, Winter 2001. .,. Nicholas C. Barberis. Thirty years of prospect theory in economics: A review and assessment. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(1):173–96, February 2013. Tópico 4: Preferências intertemporais A psicologia da valoração presente de custos e benefícios que ocorrem ao longo do tempo. Requerida: .,. David Laibson. Golden eggs and hyperbolic discounting. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2):443–478, 1997. .,. Shane Frederick, George Loewenstein, and Ted O’Donoghue. Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(2):351–401, June 2002. Recomendada: .,. George-Marios Angeletos. The Hyberbolic Consumption Model: Calibration, Simulation, and Empirical Evaluation. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(3):47–68, Summer 2001. .,. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde and Arijit Mukherji. Can We Really Observe Hyperbolic Dis- counting? Levine’s Working Paper Archive 391749000000000478, David K. Levine, February 2002. .,. Shane Frederick. Valuing future life and future lives: A framework for understanding discoun- ting. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27(5):667–680, 2006. Tópico 5: Preferências sociais Quando os agentes exibem preferências sobre o bem-estar/ganhos de outros. Requerida: .,. Ernst Fehr and Klaus M. Schmidt. A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(3):817–868, 1999. .,. Axel Ockenfels and Gary E. Bolton. ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition. American Economic Review, 90(1):166–193, March 2000. .,. Gary Charness and Matthew Rabin. Understanding social preferences with simple tests. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(3):817–869, 2002. Recomendada: .,. David K. Levine. Modeling Altruism and Spitefulness in Experiment. Review of Economic Dynamics, 1(3):593–622, July 1998. .,. Ernst Fehr and Simon Gächter. Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3):159–181, Summer 2000. .,. Ernst Fehr and Simon Gächter. Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments. The American Economic Review, 90(4):980–994, 2000. .,. Ernst Fehr and Urs Fischbacher. Why social preferences matter - the impact of non-selfish motives on competition, cooperation and incentives. The Economic Journal, 112(478):C1–C33, 2002. .,. Ken Binmore and Avner Shaked. Experimental economics: Where next? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 73(1):87–100, January 2010. [Uma crítica ao modelo Fehr-Schimdt] Tópico 6: Finanças comportamentais Psicologia comportamental e cognitiva usada para explicar “anomalias” do mercado financeiro. Requerida: .,. Andrei Shleifer. Inefficient Markets: An Introduction to Behavioral Finance. Oxford University Press, 2000 [Caps. 1 & 4]. .,. Nicholas Barberis and Richard Thaler. A survey of behavioral finance. In G.M. Constantinides, M. Harris, and R. M. Stulz, editors, Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 1 of Handbook of the Economics of Finance, chapter 18, pages 1053–1128. Elsevier, 2003. Recomendada: .,. Lawrence H. Summers. Does the stock market rationally reflect fundamental values? The Journal of Finance, 41(3):591–601, 1986. .,. David Hirshleifer. Investor psychology and asset pricing. Journal of Finance, 56(4):1533–1597, 2001. Tópico 7: Teoria dos jogos comportamental Análise de interações estratégicas com influências emocionais, cognição limitada e aprendizado. Requerida: .,. Matthew Rabin. Incorporating Behavioral Assumptions into Game Theory, pages 69–87. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 1994. .,. Colin F. Camerer. Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2003. [Cap. 1] .,. Simon Gachter. Behavioural Game Theory. In Derek J. Koehler Nigel Harvey, editor, Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, chapter 24, pages 485–503. Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Recomendada: .,. Chong J.K. Camerer C.F., Ho TH. Behavioural Game Theory: Thinking, Learning and Te- aching. In Huck S., editor, Advances in Understanding Strategic Behaviour, chapter 8, pages 120–180. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Tópico 8: Incentivos e motivação A relação entre incentivos (prêmios e punições) e motivação – e disso sobre performance. Requerida: .,. Ernst Fehr and Armin Falk. Psychological foundations of incentives. European Economic Review, 46(4):687 – 724, 2002. .,. Emir Kamenica. Behavioral economics and psychology of incentives. Annual Review of Eco- nomics, 4(1):427–452, 2012. Recomendada: .,. Bruno S. Frey and Reto Jegen. Motivation crowding theory. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(5):589–611, 2002. .,. Roland Bénabou and Jean Tirole. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Review of Economic Studies, 70(3):489–520, 2003. .,. Uri Gneezy, Stephan Meier, and Pedro Rey-Biel. When and why incentives (don’t) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(4):191–210, December 2011. Tópico 9: Auto-controle Habilidade dos indivíduos em alinhar escolhas correntes com objetivos de longo prazo. Requerida: .,. Richard H. Thaler and H. M. Shefrin. An economic theory of self-control. Journal of Political Economy, 89(2):392–406, 1981. .,. Matthew Rabin and Ted O’Donoghue. Doing It Now or Later. American Economic Review, 89(1):103–124, March 1999. Recomendada: .,. Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier. Contract design and self-control: Theory and evidence*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(2):353–402, 2004. .,. Drew Fudenberg and David K. Levine. A dual-self model of impulse control. American Economic Review, 96(5):1449–1476, December 2006. .,. Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier. Paying not to go to the gym. American Economic Review, 96(3):694–719, June 2006 Tópico 10: Neuroeconomia Como o cérebro humano gera decisões econômicas: microfundamentos neurológicos de crenças e preferências. Requerida: .,. Colin F. Camerer. Behavioral Economics. In: World Congress of the Econometric Society, 18-24 August 2005, London Unpublished, Econometric SocietyCaltech, August 2005. .,. Faruk Gul and Wolfgang Pesendorfer. The case for mindless economics. 12 2005. Recomendada: .,. Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher, and Michael Kosfeld. Neuroeconomic foundations of trust and social preferences: Initial evidence. American Economic Review, 95(2):346–351, 2005. .,. Colin F. Camerer. Goals, methods, and progress in neuroeconomics. Annual Review of Eco- nomics, 5(1):425–455, 2013. .,. Alec Smith, B. Douglas Bernheim, Colin F. Camerer, and Antonio Rangel. Neural activity reveals preferences without choices. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 6(2):1–36, May 2014. Tópico 11: Economia do trabalho comportamental Incorporando insights psicológicos na análise das relações de trabalho. Requerida: .,. Ernst Fehr, Lorenz Goette, and Christian Zehnder. A behavioral account of the labor market: The role of fairness concerns. Annual Review of Economics, 1(1):355–384, 2009. .,. Behavioral labor economics: Advances and future directions. Labour Economics, 30:71 – 85, 2014. Special Section articles on. Recomendada: .,. Colin Camerer, Linda Babcock, George Loewenstein, and Richard Thaler. Labor Supply of New York City Cabdrivers: One Day at a Time. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2):407–441, 1997. .,. Uri Gneezy and John A List. Putting behavioral economics to work: Testing for gift exchange in labor markets using field experiments. Econometrica, 74(5):1365–1384, 2006 .,. Martin Brown, Armin Falk, and Ernst Fehr. Competition and relational contracts: The role of unemployment as a disciplinary device. Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(4):887–907, 2012.
 

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